The definition of Cosmological argument
The cosmological arguments is one of the best method in defending the existence of God, more particularly Christian theism. It deals with cause and effect of the existing matter, time, and space. It deals with the question ‘Who or what caused the universe to exist’? The word cosmological derived from the word Cosmology which deals with the universe, its origin and its condition. It comes from the two Greek words “Cosmos” means world and “logos” which means word or study.
So to define Cosmology, it is a study of the world or universe or as Encarta Dictionary defines it as “the scientific study of the origin and structure of the universe”. Cosmology deals with the universe’s origin and its present condition. One would say that the universe is unstable and expanding (condition). Thus, it does began to exist (origin).
Why do we need to address Cosmology?
There are many interesting worldviews on the existence of the universe. We will address Cosmology for three reasons:
- There are who believe that the universe is all that is, and a god itself (Pantheism). Pantheists believe that the universe is god. In other words, the Pantheists believe that all is God and God is all.You are god, a trees are gods, atoms are god, germs from your mouths are also gods etc. Everything is basically are gods.
- There are also some who believe the same as Pantheist (the universe is all that is), but only universe is not God. In fact there is no God or a god (Atheism). For atheist the universe is all that is and God does not exist at all, and therefore never be the Creator of the universe. There is no God exist beyond this universe. The universe existed by random chance. It has no meaning at all, and so must life.
- Lastly, there are also who believe that the Universe exist, but it’s not God or a god. These people believe that God exist and the God they believe in is independent from the universe, and the creator of it (Theism).
Unlike the Theism view on God and universe, Atheists and Pantheists’ propositions are to deny the existence of Universe-independent God. God’s intervention in the world is skeptically rejected by these two believers. We will take the stand on the third believers (i. e. Theism). We will argue from the universal evidences that debunk the propositions of Pantheists and Atheists.
In particular, we will take the stance from Christian theism. The reason is that Christian Theism is more plausible and hopeful than other kinds of theisms. So, let’s get started.
Some scientific observations
We will look some scientific observations in order to know the real condition of the universe, and to prove the existence of God. Here they are:
- The Law of Entropy
Atheists propose that the Universe is all that is, or ever was, or ever will be. Pantheists propose that the universe itself is eternal. In order to argue these misleading propositions, the best answer is to question the questioner. How could the atheists and pantheists so certain that the universe is infinite or eternal, and all that is or will be since the law of entropy says that “the amount of energy in the universe available for work is running down”? Now, “if the amount of the mass-energy is limited, and the amount of usable is decreasing then the universe cannot have existed forever”. Now this scientific discovery itself proves that the universe itself is not eternal or infinite.
- The Universe is dependent to its part
In addition to this fact, the universe is not independent but dependent from its part! By using the part to the whole arguments Norman Geisler said: “…Does this ‘unity’ of the dependent part of the universe actually make the universe as a whole independent? What if every independent part where destroyed, would we be left only with this ‘independent unity’, this transcendent universe? No., this ‘uncaused whole’ would go out of existence because it actually has no existence outside of its dependent part; it must be dependent on its parts. It is actually not independent at all, but dependent. It caused to exist by its parts”
- General Relativity
Another evidence that the universe is not eternal or infinite, namely, the theory of General Relativity of Albert Einstein. It is the theory that has certain implication, and it is almost universally accepted. One is that the universe which defined as time, space, matter, and physical energy had a starting point in history. Through Einstein equation, we can trace the development of the universe back to its origin called the Singularity events or Big Bang.
Did all scientists like their discoveries?
However, some scientist did not like the result. Perhaps because it would prove the existence of God. So, they tried to find an error. Unfortunately they were not successful.
By the help of the impressive telescope of Erwin Hubble called Hubble Space Telescope allow the astronomers to see the activity of the universe. Accordingly, the universe is expanding and the far away the galaxies are moving, the faster they are moving too. This discovery led most scientist to conclude that the universe had a beginning point from its expansion process.
Since it is evident that the amount of energy in the universe is decreasing, the universe is dependent on its parts, and the universe has a beginning in the point of time in the past, then it is therefore clear to us that the universe cannot be eternal or infinite. Thus, it began to exist, and must have a cause of its existence. It flows the logical syllogism:
- Everything that has beginning has a cause.
- The universe has a Beginning.
- Therefore the universe has a cause.
Who caused the Universe to exit?
Now, one has to land into theistic evidence. Norman Geisler said, “…only every effects has a cause”. The universe is the effect of the cause. Since the universe has composed of time, space matter and physical energy, then the cause must be beyond time, space, matter and physical energy. The Cause must be the Uncaused Being that caused the universe to exist, and that is God! He must not be a self-caused, and he never created everything out of Himself (a Pantheistic belief), but he created everything out of nothing (Theistic).
Now it is universally accepted that the universe has a beginning, and if it has a beginning it is rationally to believe that it requires the Uncaused Creator—GOD! Since, it is rationally to believe in Uncaused God, it also rational to believe in the Bible. The Bible declares “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” (Gen.1:1). God is beyond from His creation and at the same time can be everywhere in it (Gen 1:1, Col. 1:16-17). Time has a beginning, and God’s cause and effects activity is beyond it (2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:2). Therefore the logic follows:
- Everything has a beginning has a cause.
- The universe has a beginning (affirmed by the theory of General Relativity and the Law of entropy).
- Therefore the universe has a cause.
- The cause must be outside of the universe (the unmoved mover).
- God, by definition, is transcendent and the unmoved mover.
- Thus, God is the Cause of the universe.
We will talk about the Argument from Designed in my next article. For now, let’s focus on the Cosmology first.
Therefore, the Universe cannot stand forever as some believes it that it is in a steady state. The Law of Entropy proves that it will eventually come to end. Everything inside of it will somehow submit to that law. It also mean that the universe is dependent to its part. That means the absence of its part, namely Time, Space, Matter and Energy, the universe could be impossible to exist. Missing one of these life also would be impossible to exist. Lastly, the universe began to exist. It must have a cause of its existence. The cause of its existence must not be itself or in itself, but rather outside of it. The cause must be intelligent being and powerful enough to cause the universe to exist. That must be the intelligent and powerful God.
Need a further readings?
You can check out these authors.
Geisler, Norman L. 1985. False gods of our time. United States of America: Harvest House Publishers, Inc.
Ham Ken, Sarfati Jonathan., and Wieland Carl. 2005. The revise and expanded answers book. United State of America: Master Book, Inc.
Mittelberg, Mark. 2010. The questions Christians hope no one will ask. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publisher, Inc.